The History of the "Business With Disease"
The most powerful German economic corporate emporium in the
first half of this century was the Interessengemeinschaft Farben or
IG Farben, for
short. Interessengemeinschaft stands for "Association of Common
Interests" and was nothing other than a powerful cartel of BASF,
Bayer, Hoechst, and other German chemical and pharmaceutical companies.
IG Farben was the single largest donor to the election campaign of Adolph
Hitler. One year before Hitler seized power, IG Farben donated 400,000
marks to Hitler and his Nazi party. Accordingly, after Hitler's seizure
of power, IG Farben was the single largest profiteer of the German conquest
of the world, the Second World War.
|Zyklon-B, an extermination gas produced by
Hoechst, was used to kill millions of innocent people, before
their corpses were burnt
One hundred percent of all explosives and one hundred percent
of all synthetic gasoline came from the factories of IG Farben. Whenever
the German Wehrmacht conquered another country, IG Farben followed, systematically
taking over the industries of those countries. Through this close collaboration
with Hitler's Wehrmacht, IG Farben participated in the plunder of Austria,
Czechoslovakia, Poland, Norway, Holland, Belgium, France and all other
countries conquered by the Nazis.
The U.S. government investigation of the factors that led to
the Second World War in 1946 came to the conclusion that without
IG Farben the Second World
War would simply not have been possible. We have to come to grips with the
fact that it was not a psychopath, Adolph Hitler, or bad genes of the German
people that brought about the Second World War. Economic greed by companies
like Bayer, BASF and Hoechst was the key factor in bringing about the Holocaust.
No one who saw Steven Spielberg's film "Schindler's List" will
forget the scenes in the concentration camp Auschwitz.
The Birth of IG Farben and the Support for Hitler
(from the book "Sword And Swastika" by Telford Taylor)
After the First World War, all the major chemical concerns were merged
in 1926 into a single gigantic trust - the I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G.
- under the leadership of Carl Duisberg and Carl Bosch. Dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals,
photographic supplies, explosives, and a myriad of other products poured
forth in ever-growing volume and variety.
Soon after the election of July, 1932, in which the Nazis had doubled
their vote, Heinrich Buetefisch [chief of the I.G. Farben - Leuna plant]
and Heinrich Gattineau [a Farben official who was also an SA officer
and personally known to both Rudolf Hess and Ernst Roehm]. waited upon
the Fuehrer-to-be to learn whether Farben could count on governmental
support for its synthetic gasoline program in the event the Nazis should
attain power. Hitler readily agreed that Farben should be given the necessary
support to warrant expansion of the Leuna plant.
After the seizure of power, Farben lost no time in following up this
auspicious introduction. Significantly, Farben's chosen channel was not
the Heeresleitung but Hermann Goering's new Air Ministry. In a long letter
to Goering's deputy Erhard Milch, Carl Krauch of Farben outlined a "four-year
plan" for the expansion of synthetic fuel output. Milch thereupon
called in Generalleutnant von Vollard Bockelberg, Chief of the Army Ordnance
Office, and it was agreed that the Army and the Air Ministry together
would sponsor the Krauch project. A few months later Farben received
a formal Reich contract calling for the enlargement of Leuna so that
production would reach three hundred thousand tons per year by 1937,
with Farben's sales guaranteed for ten years - until June 30, 1944 -
on a cost-plus basis.
1941: I.G. Farben's "friendship" with the SS helps to increase
the speed of construction of Auschwitz-Buna against the resistance "of
some little bureaucrats".
A letter from Dr. Otto Ambros to the
Director of I.G. Farben Frankfurt, Fritz ter Meer
I.G. Farben and the Auschwitz Concentration Camp
|On March 1, 1941, the Reichsführer of
the SS, Heinrich Himmler, inspected the construction site
Auschwitz was the largest mass extermination factory in human history,
but the concentration camp was only the appendix.
The main project was IG Auschwitz, a 100% subsidiary of IG Farben, the
largest industrial complex of the world for manufacturing synthetic gasoline
and rubber for the conquest of Europe.
On April 14, 1941, in Ludwigshafen, Otto Armbrust, the IG Farben board
member responsible for the Auschwitz project, stated to his IG Farben
board colleagues, "our new friendship with the SS is a blessing.
We have determined all measures integrating the concentration camps to
benefit our company."
The pharmaceutical departments of the IG Farben cartel used the victims
of the concentration camps in their own way: thousands of them died during
human experiments such as the testing of new and unknown vaccines.
There was no retirement plan for the prisoners of IG Auschwitz. Those
who were too weak or too sick to work were selected at the main gate
of the IG Auschwitz factory and sent to the gas chambers. Even the chemical
gas Zyklon-B used for the annihilation of millions of people was derived
from the drawing boards and factories of IG Farben.
The map of Auschwitz (above) speaks for itself. The size of the
IG Auschwitz plant (red area) was larger than all Auschwitz concentration
camps (blue area) taken together.
Medical Experiments in Auschwitz Conducted by I.G. Farben
(from the book "I.G. Farben - from Anilin to forced labor" by
Jörg Hunger and Paul Sander)
Scientific experiments were also done in other concentration camps.
A decisive fact is that IG employee SS major Dr. med. Helmuth Vetter,
stationed in several concentration camps, participated in these experiments
by order of Bayer Leverkusen.
At the same time as Dr. Joseph Mengele, he experimented in Auschwitz
with medications that were designated "B-1012", B-1034", "3382" or "Rutenol".
The test preparations were not just applied to those prisoners who were
ill, but also to healthy ones. These people were first infected on purpose
through pills, powdered substances, injections or enemas. Many of the
medications caused the victims to vomit or have bloody diarrhoea. In
most cases the prisoners died as a result of the experiments.
In the Auschwitz files correspondence was discovered between the camp
commander and Bayer Leverkusen. It dealt with the sale of 150 female
prisoners for experimental purposes: "With a view to the planned
experiments with a new sleep-inducing drug we would appreciate it if
you could place a number of prisoners at our disposal (…)" – "We
confirm your response, but consider the price of 200 RM per woman to
be too high. We propose to pay no more than 170 RM per woman. If this
is acceptable to you, the women will be placed in our possession. We
need some 150 women (…)" – "We confirm your approval
of the agreement. Please prepare for us 150 women in the best health
possible (…)" – "Received the order for 150 women.
Despite their macerated condition they were considered satisfactory.
We will keep you informed of the developments regarding the experiments
(…)" – "The experiments were performed. All test
persons died. We will contact you shortly about a new shipment (…)"
A former Auschwitz prisoner testified: "There was a large ward
of tuberculars on block 20. The Bayer Company sent medications in unmarked
and unnamed ampoules. The tuberculars were injected with this. These
unfortunate people were never killed in the gas chambers. One only had
to wait for them to die, which did not take long (…) 150 Jewish
women that had been bought from the camp attendant by Bayer, (…)
served for experiments with unknown hormonal preparations."
Parallel to the tests by Behringwerke and Bayer Leverkusen the chemical-pharmaceutical
and serologic-bacteriological department at Hoechst started experimenting
on Auschwitz prisoners with their new typhus fever preparation “3582”.
The first series of tests had results that were far from satisfactory.
Of the 50 test persons 15 died; the typhus fever drug led to vomiting
and exhaustion. Part of the concentration camp Auschwitz was quarantined,
which led to an extension of the tests to the concentration camp in Buchenwald.
In the journal of the "department for typhus fever and viral research
of the concentration camp Buchenwald" we find on January 10th, 1943: "As
suggested by the IG Farbenindustrie A.G. the following were tested as
typhus fever medications: a) preparation 3582 <Akridin> of the
chem. pharm. and sero-bact. Department Hoechst – Prof. Lautenschläger
and Dr. Weber – (therapeutic test A), b) methylene blue, formerly
tested on mice by Prof. Kiekuth, Elberfeld (therapeutic test M)."
The first and also the second series of therapeutic tests, held in Buchenwald
between March 31st and April 11th 1943, had negative results due to insufficient
contamination of the tested prisoners. Neither did the experiments in
Auschwitz have evident successes.
The scientific value of all these experiments, whether ordered by the
IG Farben or not, was in fact zero. The test persons were in bad physical
condition, caused by forced labor, insufficient and wrong nutrition and
diseases in the concentration camp. Add to this the generally bad sanitary
circumstances in the laboratories. "The test results in the concentration
camps, as the IG laboratory specialists should know, could not be compared
to results made under normal circumstances".
The SS physician Dr. Hoven testified to this during the Nuremberg Trial: "It
should be generally known, and especially in German scientific circles,
that the SS did not have notable scientists at its disposal. It is clear
that the experiments in the concentration camps with IG preparations
only took place in the interests of the IG, which strived by all means
to determine the effectiveness of these preparations. They let the SS
deal with the – shall I say – dirty work in the concentration
camps. It was not the IG’s intention to bring any of this out in
the open, but rather to put up a smoke screen around the experiments
so that (…) they could keep any profits to themselves. Not the
SS but the IG took the initiative for the concentration camp experiments."
A letter from 1944 in which I.G. Farben orders
an "energic punishment" for a slave laborer in Auschwitz-Monowitz.
The Nuremberg War Tribunal
The Nuremberg War Criminal Tribunal convicted 24 IG Farben board members
and executives on the basis of mass murder, slavery and other crimes
against humanity. Amazingly however, by 1951 all of them had already
been released, continuing to consult with German corporations. The Nuremberg
Tribunal dissolved the IG Farben into Bayer, Hoechst, and BASF.
Today each of the three daughters of the IG Farben is 20 times as big
as the IG Farben mother was at its height in 1944, the last year of the
Second World War.
More importantly, for almost three decades after the Second World War,
BASF, Bayer and Hoechst (now Aventis) each filled its highest position,
chairman of the board, with former members of the Nazi, NSDAP:
- Carl Wurster, chairman of the board of BASF until 1974 was, during the
war, on the board of the company manufacturing Zyklon-B gas
- Carl Winnacker, chairman of the board of Hoechst until the late
70's, was a member of the Sturm Abteilung (SA) and was a member of
of IG Farben
- Curt Hansen, chairman of the board of Bayer until the late 70's,
was co-organizer of the conquest of Europe in the department of "acquisition
of raw materials." Under this leadership the IG Farben daughters,
BASF, Bayer, and Hoechst, continued to support politicians representing
During the 50's and 60's they invested in the political career of
a young representative from a suburb of the BASF town of Ludwigshafen,
From 1957 to 1967 the young Helmut Kohl was a paid lobbyist of the "Verband
Chemischer Industrie," the central lobby organization of the German
pharmaceutical and chemical cartel. Thus, the German chemical and pharmaceutical
industry built up one of its own as a political representative, leaving
the German people with only the choice of final approval.
|Nuremberg War Tribunal 1946/47: 24 managers
of Hoechst, Bayer and BASF were indicted for mass murder, slavery
and other crimes against humanity.
The result is well known: Helmut Kohl was chancellor of Germany for
16 years and the German pharmaceutical and chemical industry became the
leading exporter of chemical products, with subsidiaries in over 150 countries,
more than IG Farben ever had. Several billion people will now die prematurely,
if the pharmaceutical industry gets its way. Germany is the only country
in the entire world in which a former paid lobbyist for the chemical
cartel was head of the government. In summary, the support of German politics
for the global expansion plans of the German pharmaceutical and chemical
companies has a 100-year-old tradition.
It is with this background that we understand the support of Bonn for
the unethical plans of the Codex Commission.
The U.S. lead prosecutor in the Nuremberg War Criminal Tribunal against
the IG Farben anticipated this development when he said, "these
IG Farben criminals, not the lunatic Nazi fanatics, are the main war
criminals. If the guilt of these criminals is not brought to daylight
and if they are not punished, they will represent a much greater threat
to the future peace of the world than Hitler if he were still alive."
The Disgraced Managers of IG Farben
Fritz ter Meer (1884-1967)
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1926-1945, member of
the working committee and the technical committee, director of section
- 1943 plenipotentiary for Italy of the Reich Minister for armaments
and war production, military economist chief industrialist responsible
- 1948 found guilty of "plundering" and "enslavement" and
condemned to seven years detention. Released 1952.
- 1955 board member of Bayer
- 1956-1964 chairman of the board of Bayer chairman of the board of
Th. Goldschmidt AG, deputy chairman of the board of Commerzbank bank
AG, board member of the Waggonfabrik Uerdingen, the Duesseldorfer
waggonfabrik AG, the bank association West Germany AG and the United
Otto Ambros (1901-):
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1938-1945, member of
the chemical committee and chairman of commission K (agents), special
advisors of Krauchs F+E department for the four-year plan, director
committee C (chemical agents), the main committee for powders
and explosives in the office for arms, military industrial leader
- Responsible for choice of location, planning, building and running
of IG Auschwitz as operations manager. Managing director of the Buna-Works
and synthetic fuel production
- 1945 knight's cross Distinguished Service Cross
- 1948 found guilty of "enslavement" condemned to eight years
- Released 1952.
- Starting from 1954 chairman, deputy chairmen and member of the boards
of: Chemie Grünenthal, Pintsch Bamag AG, Knoll AG, Feldmühle
Papier- und Zellstoffwerke, Telefunken GmbH, Grünzweig & Hartmann,
Internationale Galalithgesellschaft, Berliner Handelsgesellschaft, Süddeutsche
Kalkstickstoffwerke, Vereinigte Industrieunternehmungen (VIAG) with its
daughter enterprises Scholven-Chemie and Phenol-Chemie as an advisor
to F. K. Flickund of the US Industrialist J.P. Grace is entangled in
the early eighties in the "Flick scandal"
Hermann Schmitz (1881-1960)
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1926-1935, chairman of
the board 1935-1945 and "chief of finances" to the IG
- Military industrial leader, member of the Nazi party (NSDAP)
- 1941 war Distinguished Service Cross 1st. Class
- 1948 found guilty of "plundering" condemned to four years
- Released 1950.
- 1952 board member of the German bank Berlin West
- 1956 honorary chairman of the board of Rheini steel plants.
Fritz Gajewski (1888-1962)
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1931-1945, leader of section
III (coordination with Dynamite Nobel)
- At Nuremberg, found "not guiltily" for all charges
- 1949 managing director, 1952 chairman of the board of Dynamite Nobel
- 1953 Distinguished Service Cross of the Federal Republic of Germany
- 1957 retirement, honorary chairman of the board of Dynamite Nobel
AG, chairman of the board of Genschow & Co. and the Chemie-Verwaltungs
AG, board member of Huels AG and the Gelsenkirchener mines
Heinrich Buetefisch (1894-1969)
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1934-1945, deputy director
of section I, director of gasoline synthesis for IG Auschwitz
- 1932 (together with Gattineau) had the conversation with Hitler,
that defined the petrol pact, 1936 co-worker of Krauch on the four
as a production representative for Öl in the Arms Ministry
- SS Obersturmbannführer, military industrial leader, awarded the "friend
of the Reich leader SS" cross.
- 1948 found guilty of "enslavement" condemned to six years
- Released 1951.
- 1952 supervisory board member of Ruhr-Chemie and Kohle-Öl-Chemie
- 1964 Distinguished Service Cross of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The award was taken back after 16 days due to the violent protests
Friedrich Jaehne (1879-1965)
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1934-1945, chief engineer
of the IG, deputy director of the BG central Rhine/Maingau
- 1943 military industrial leader, Distinguished Service Cross 1st.
Class 1948 found guilty of "plundering" condemned to 18 months
- 1955 supervisory board member of the "new" Farbwerke Hoechst.
In the same year elevated to supervisory board chairman elect – Karl
Winnacker said "in the meantime the liquidation conclusion law had
been issued and freed us from all discriminating regulations. So we could
add Friedrich Jaehne, chief engineer of the old IG, to the supervisory
board. He presided over this committee until 1963. None of us would have
thought in 1945 that we would come to such a co-operation".
- Supervisory board chairman of the Alfreds Messer GmbH (late Messer
Griesheim), supervisory board member with Linde
- 1959 Dr. Ing. E.h. of TH Munich, 1962 Bayer service medal, honorary
senator of TH Munich, Distinguished Service Cross of the Federal
Republic of Germany
Carl Krauch (1887-1968)
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1926-1940, chairman of
the board 1940-1945, director of the coordination center W, director
Reich office for economics, plenipotentiary for special questions
on chemical production, military industrial leader.
- 1943 knight's cross for distinguished service.
- 1948 found guilty of "enslavement" and condemned to six
- Released 1950.
- 1955 board member of Huels GmbH.
- In the Frankfurt 1956 Auschwitz court case is quoted as saying: "they
were usually anti-social elements so called political prisoners" (describing
the prisoners of Auschwitz-Monowitz)
Carl Wurster (1900-1974)
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1938-1945, director of
BG upperRhine, board member of DEGESCH
- Military industrial leader and Reich calculation chamber of economics
- 1945 knight's cross Distinguished Service Cross
- At Nuremberg, found "not guiltily" of all charges
- 1952 chairman of the board of the "new" BASF, chairman of
the board for Duisburger Kupferhuette and Robert Bosch AG, board member
of Augusts Viktoria, the Buna-Werke Huels GmbH, the Süddeutschen
Bank, Deutschen Bank, Vereinigten Glanzstoff, BBC, Allianz, Degussa,
1965 retirement as chairman of the board of BASF
- 1952 honorary professor of the University of Heidelberg, Dr. rer.
RK h.c. the University of Tübingen, 1953 Dr. Ing. E.h. of the TH Munich,
1955 Distinguished Service Cross of the Federal Republic of Germany,
Bayer service medal, 1960 Dr. rer. pole h.c. the University of Mannheim,
honorary senator of the Universities of Mainz, Karlsruhe and Tübingen,
honorary citizen of the University of Stuttgart, honour citizen of
the city of Ludwigshafen, 1967 Schiller prize of the city of Mannheim,
of the federation of the chemical industry, vice-president of the Max-Planck
company, the company of German chemists.
From "Arbeit macht frei" to "Codex Alimentarius"
|The entrance of the Auschwitz Concentration
Just fifteen years after they were convicted in the Nuremberg War Crimes
Tribunal, Bayer, BASF and Hoechst were again the architects of the next
major human rights offences. In 1962, they established the Codex Alimentarius
This dark period of German history is inextricably bound to one man,
Fritz ter Meer:
- He was a member of the Managing Board of IG Farben from its inception
to its dissolution. As the Wartime Manager, he was responsible for IG
- In the Nuremberg Tribunal, ter Meer stated: "Forced labor did
not inflict any remarkable injury, pain, or suffering on the detainees,
since the alternative for these workers would have been death."
- In 1948, ter Meer was sentenced by the Nuremberg Tribunal to seven
years in prison for plundering and slavery.
- In 1952, his sentence was commuted, due to the influence of powerful
- From 1956-1964, he was reinstated as a member of the Managing Board
of Bayer AG.
- In 1962, ter Meer was one of the architects of the "Codex Alimentarius" -
Commission and one of the main designers of the schemes that would
profit from human suffering.
The deceptive title "Codex Alimentarius" is no accident. It was devised
by the same firms and indeed the same individuals, who gave the Auschwitz concentration
camp inmates the deceptive slogan "Arbeit mach frei" ("Work
makes you free").
As long as the Nazi infection continues to work its influence and threaten
the lives of untold millions, no German has the right to proclaim that the
Nazi era is finished.
Sword and Swastika
by Telford Taylor
As chief of counsel for the prosecution of war criminals at Nuremberg,
Brigadier General Telford Taylor had a major part in unraveling the tangled
knot of guilt for the launching of the war, and for the concomitant atrocities
of the Nazi era.
In his book, Mr. Taylor takes advantage of his profound knowledge of
the Third Reich and of the roles of the German officer class, the industry
and the Nazis.
Rockefeller Medicine Men -
Medicine & Capitalism in America
by E. Richard Brown
When Rockefeller Medicine Men was first published in 1979, it proved
to be a controversial work. In reviewing histories of medicine from 1962
to 1982, Ronald L. Numbers called it "the most controversial medical
history of the past decade".
Part of the controversy generated by the book comes from its social-historical
approach to medicine. The growing body of social histories of health-care
challenges the "great physician" perspective that for so long
has dominated the history of medicine.
In his book, E. Richard Brown describes the political economy of health
care, integrating material from a variety of disciplines - economics,
sociology, political science, epidemiology, history and social policy
Auschwitz Chronicle 1939 - 1945
by Danuta Czech
Auschwitz represents the apex of evil; as such, if we can never understand
why it existed, we can at least know how. Most documents concerning Auschwitz
and its annexes, Birkenau and Monowitz, were destroyed by the Nazis as
the Allies advanced at the close of the war, yet much survived to be
collected into the archives of the Official Auschwitz Museum, including:
more than 3,500 eyewitness accounts by former prisoners; original camp
documents that detail transport and admissions lists; written orders
from the commandant; orders for laboratory experiments; hundreds of original
secret messages - pleas for food and help in escape attempts - smuggled
out by prisoners; financial records; building and maintenance files;
and information brought out at postwar trials.
Auschwitz Chronicle, a collection of these documents, is a monumental
reference that records - day by day, month by month - the events and
developments of the concentration camp for its planning in the winter
of 1939-40 to its liberation in January 1945: the construction, operation,
and eventual destruction of gas chambers and crematoriums; the transports
and selections; the infamous medical "experiments"; the visits
and inspections by SS leaders, physicians, and the Red Cross; the secret
resistance activities; and the all-too-infrequent revolts and escapes.
Danuta Czech is the former head of the research department of the Official
Auschwitz Museum where, in 1955, she began the work that culminates in
the Auschwitz Chronicle. Born in Poland in 1922, she was an active member
of resistance in the Tarnow region during World War II.
Auschwitz: 1270 to the Present
by Debórah Dwork and Robert Jan van Pelt
No symbol of the Holocaust is more profound than Auschwitz. Yet the
sheer, erushing number of murders - over 1,200,000 of them - the overwhelming
scale of the crime, and the vast, abandoned site of ruined chimneys and
rusting barbed wire isolate Auschwitz from us.
How could an ordinary town become a site of such terror? Why was this
particular town chosen? Who conceived, ereated, and constructed the camp?
This unprecedented history reveals how an unmarkable Polish village was
transformed into a killing field. Using architechtural designs and planning
documents recently discovered in Poland and Russia and over 200 illustrations,
the definitive "Auschwitz: 1270 to the Present" traces the
successive stages of how Auschwitz became the focus of a Germanized Poland
and the epicenter of the Final Solution.